All speakers work pretty much the same, incorporating one or more drivers within a speaker cabinet.
Satellite speakers have a single speaker driver; two-way systems have a tweeter and a midrange driver or woofer; three-way systems have a tweeter, a midrange, and a woofer; four-way systems add a built-in powered subwoofer.
Floorstanding speakers deliver better bass response than bookshelf speakers and are more efficientthat is, they sound louder with the same power amplifier/receiver.
Bookshelf speakers fit well in most rooms and deliver a more neutral, better-focused sound than floorstanding speakersbut often lack deep bass response.
Satellite speakers reproduce high and midrange frequencies only, and must be supplemented with a subwoofer for good bass.
If you listen to a lot of music, go with floorstanding speakersthey're good for both music and movies.
If you primarily watch movies, go with a bookshelf + subwoofer combination.