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What You’ve Learned

This chapter outlines tools that can assist you in evaluating or reassessing a system, including technical and nontechnical aspects. This chapter covered the following tools and techniques:

  • How to determine hardware utilization, to assess the usage of storage, network, CPU, and memory
  • Displaying vital statistics about a network interface using netstat, and from this information, manually computing utilization
  • Displaying information about currently running system processes with the ps utility
  • Computing load average as an important metric in determining CPU capacity
  • Using sysctl as one way to show the current load average
  • Displaying detailed statistics about virtual memory usage, including system average statistics since bootup, using vm_stat
  • Displaying statistics about current and average input/output, using iostat
  • Displaying disk capacity use with df
  • Displaying disk usage for a given part of the disk hierarchy, such as /Users, with du
  • Determining the history of system upgrades and installed packages using receipts and /var/log/installer.log
  • Querying and manipulating the receipts database using the pkgutil command
  • Accounting of user workflows when assessing systems
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