Publishers of technology books, eBooks, and videos for creative people

Home > Articles > Web Design & Development

WordPress Theming Basics

Jesse Friedman covers WordPress theming basics, including WordPress theme requirements, dynamic header calls, menu nav creation, and content formatting.
This chapter is from the book

I’m often surprised to learn how complicated it is to work with other CMSs. As we’ve seen, WordPress has a very low barrier to entry, which means you can learn the system and build themes faster and more efficiently. At this point you know your HTML, CSS, and probably JavaScript. The only difference between a static website and a WordPress theme is stripping away that static content and replacing it with dynamic CMS calls.

I’m also surprised to meet web designers working in WordPress who don’t realize they are writing PHP. PHP is the server-side web development language behind WordPress. Even if you’re well aware of what it does and how it works, you probably haven’t written much PHP. Well, guess what? Today we’re diving right in.

What you’re about to learn

  • WordPress theme requirements
  • Theming basics
  • Dynamic header calls
  • Menu nav creation
  • Content formatting

Five-Minute Theme Build

You need only two template files (index.php and style.css) to create a functional WordPress theme. Index.php is used to make WordPress calls to display content, while the style.css file houses site styles and defines the theme name, description, and other details. In this chapter, we’ll create a very simple WordPress theme using some basic required files.

Theme Requirements and Declarations

Let’s start by creating a blank style.css file and putting it in the theme folder. Name your theme folder something simple yet unique and don’t use any spaces, numbers, or special characters.


If you haven’t installed a local server application yet, that’s OK. For now we’re just doing some very basic programming. However, to test the theme you’ll need to install WordPress somewhere.

The absolute first thing in the style.css file has to be the theme declarations, which are commented out to prevent interaction with actual site styles. This section is called the “stylesheet header.” Below is the stylesheet header for our first basic theme. Be aware that changing this information on an activated theme is likely to cause a slight glitch and require reactivation.

Theme Name: My Basic Theme
Theme URI:
Description: My first WordPress theme
Author: Jesse Friedman
Author URI:
Version: 1.0


License URI:

General comments (optional).


Feel free to replace the text in maroon with your information. The black text must be absolutely perfect and mirror what you see above. Changing “Theme Name:” to “ThemeName:” will result in a broken theme.

The next step would be to add site styles, but we’re building a very basic theme so we won’t be inputting any styles at the moment.

We don’t actually have to add anything to the index.php file right now. Let’s start by simply creating a blank file and placing it in the same theme folder as the style.css file above:


Theme Installation and Activation

That’s it! You’ve created a WordPress theme. Now let’s install it by adding it to the themes folder on the server. Upload your files via FTP to the wp-content/themes directory on the server. You can avoid FTP by “zipping” up the theme and uploading it under the “Add New” tab in Appearance and Themes.

Once the theme is uploaded you can go to Appearance → Themes and see the theme ready and awaiting activation. It’s missing a thumbnail, but since we don’t really have anything to take a screenshot of at the moment, we can leave it blank. We will cover how to add a screenshot to your finished theme in Chapter 19, “Test and Launch.” You’ll also notice that all the theme details from the stylesheet header are there, too.

Activate the theme and then navigate to the front of the website. You’ll see a very simple site, with no content. Who says we shouldn’t be proud of a plain white screen?

Peachpit Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from Peachpit and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about Peachpit products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites; develop new products and services; conduct educational research; and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by Adobe Press. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive:

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020