Publishers of technology books, eBooks, and videos for creative people

Home > Articles > Web Design & Development > CSS

This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

Practical Markup

Since XFN describes social relationships via links, the markup is always a link (<a>). But it is still worthwhile to see some examples of how these links might appear in content.

Blogroll using <ul>

I mentioned that the blogroll trend was, in part, inspiration for the genesis of XFN, so let's see how it looks in action using an excerpt from my own blogroll:

    <li><a href="">Chris Harrison</a>
    <li><a href="">Ian Pitts</a></li>
    <li><a href="">Virginia


Each of the links in this example is to a site about a person I have met in real life, so I will add the rel attribute to each of my links and assign the value met:

    <li><a href="" rel="met">Chris
    <li><a href="" rel="met">Ian
    <li><a href=""
rel="met">Virginia DeBolt</a></li>


Additionally, each of these folks is someone I consider a friend, so I will also add that XFN value to my rel attribute, making sure to separate the multiple values with a space:

    <li><a href="" rel="met friend">
Chris Harrison</a></li>
    <li><a href="" rel="met friend">
Ian Pitts</a></li>
    <li><a href="" rel="met
friend">Virginia deBolt</a></li>


One of the links is to my boss, so for his link I will also add the co-worker value:

<a href="" rel="met friend
co-worker">Ian Pitts</a>


Another link is to someone who is my professional peer with similar interests and skills, so in goes the colleague value:

<a href="" rel="met friend colleague">
Chris Harrison</a>


Finally, the last link is to someone whom I admire and who inspires me on a regular basis—a muse:

<a href="" rel="met friend muse">
Virginia DeBolt</a>

The end result

Now I have a nice blogroll that also indicates my social relationships:

    <li><a href="" rel="met friend

   colleague">Chris Harrison</a></li>
    <li><a href="" rel="met friend

   co-worker">Ian Pitts</a></li>
    <li><a href="" rel="met friend

   muse">Virginia DeBolt</a></li>

I would use this same markup structure (an unordered list) for lists of followers/friends in a social network, such as Twitter. Sadly, while Twitter embraces the semantics of XFN, it does not embrace POSH, instead using a bunch of completely nonsemantic <span> elements (tsk, tsk, but I still love you, Twitter).

The logic behind the markup

There's not much to the logic for a blogroll. It is a list of links to blogs/sites that I read and recommend. So a link element makes POSH sense. And because there is no sequence to these links, an unordered list (<ul>) is appropriate.

However, if you wanted to have a blogroll with a bit more information than just a link, such as a brief description of the site/blog, you could use a definition list (<dl>). In this case, you would contain your XFN link in a <dt>, followed by your brief description contained in a <dd>, like so:

    <dt><a href="" rel="met friend

muse">Virginia DeBolt</a></dt>
    <dd>Tips, web design book reviews, resources and
observations for teaching and learning web development.</dd>

Note that I only included one link and description in this example for brevity's sake (I already suspect I've killed a few trees and this book isn't even halfway finished). I would not encourage a definition list with a single item. From my semantic perspective, lists should be for two or more items.

XFN in natural language

Links, by their nature, are commonly included in natural language. That is, you can put links in language that appears in natural sentences, as opposed to chunking the content in list elements as I've done in the previous examples.

So let's take a look at applying XFN to links that appear naturally in sentences of a paragraph that might be in one of my blog posts:

<p>At SXSWi, I attended an excellent session on the future
of web education, along with my friends Chris Harrison and
Virginia DeBolt.</p>

Adding the links

Whenever I reference a person on my blog (or any site I maintain, for that matter) and that person has a site, I always give them a little link-love:

<p>At SXSWi, I attended an excellent session on the future
of web education, along with my friends <a href="http://">Chris Harrison</a> and <a href="http://">Virginia DeBolt</a>.</p>

Adding the XFN

Once the links are in place, I just drop in the appropriate XFN values for each person's link:

<p>At SXSWi, I attended an excellent session on the future
of web education, along with my friends <a href="http://" rel="met friend colleague">Chris Harrison
</a> and <a href="" rel="met friend

muse">Virginia DeBolt</a>.</p>

Peachpit Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from Peachpit and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about Peachpit products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites; develop new products and services; conduct educational research; and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by Adobe Press. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive:

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020