Publishers of technology books, eBooks, and videos for creative people

Home > Articles > Design > Voices That Matter

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

Accessibility considerations

When applying style to a page, there are a multitude of usability and accessibility issues to consider for all users, including those with disabilities.

The W3C offers an extensive recommendation called "Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0" (WCAG), which covers a range of accessibility best practices, including meaningful markup choices, visual design considerations, and use of JavaScript to improve accessibility. There are several we feel are very important that are worth highlighting:

  • Text size and scaling: Design pages with text sizes that are large enough for the average user to read easily. CSS written using flexible units such as em and %, or keywords like small, medium, and large, allows users to easily resize the text to their preference. While most modern browsers can resize page content regardless of its CSS units, Internet Explorer versions 6 and earlier require the use of flexible units for text scaling to work.
  • Contrast ratios: To ensure that text content is comfortably readable for a broad audience, WCAG recommends a text color-to-background contrast ratio of no less than 3:1 for large text and 5:1 for smaller text. (For reference, black text on a white background is 21:1, and the mid-gray for hex#666 on white is 5.74:1.) There are many tools to test specific contrasts and ensure acceptable contrast levels.
  • Color accommodations: Interfaces frequently build in color-based visual cues—from colored text for links, to red/green indicators for performance, to highlights for alerts. Six to nine percent of the population suffers from some level of color-blindness, with the most common type manifesting itself in a difficulty distinguishing red and green values. For this reason, any visual indicator should have both a shift in color value and a secondary visual indication like a distinctly different shape or pattern to make it usable for people with color-blindness.
  • Clear link affordances: Users expect that text located in certain locations on the page—at the top, along the left column, and at the bottom—will be links regardless of style; for text links in the body of the page, it's important to style them with adequate difference from surrounding text, and consider underlining them at all times, or at least on hover, for optimal clarity.
  • Background color fallback: When using a background image behind text, be sure to set a complementary background color behind the image as a fallback in case the image fails to load or the user has images disabled. (Contrast-ratio considerations, described above, should be applied in this case as well.)

There are also a number of our own accessibility best practice guidelines we always keep in mind when considering overall page layout and structure:

  • Consider screen resolutions: When designing pages with fixed widths, we recommend designing within the common screen resolution of 960 pixels wide, to ensure most users will not need to scroll horizontally.
  • Present comfortable column and line widths: Columns of text that are roughly 80 characters wide (about 9–10 words) are most comfortable to read. For very text-heavy sites, we consider even narrower columns to facilitate comfortable scanning and reading.
  • Work with native browser focus styling when possible: Most browsers handle focus with a dotted or glowing outline that allows users to easily navigate a page with their keyboard. While this outline treatment sometimes clashes with the intended user interface design, we recommend that you don't disable it; if you do, be sure to create another style, like a border or background color shift, that appears on focus to provide clear feedback to users navigating the page without a mouse.
  • Follow established conventions: Across the web, users are trained to find common features in specific locations—primary navigation at the top or left of the page; account tools, shopping-cart feedback, and logout links at the top right; and user help links at the bottom of the page, for example. Positioning elements in a predictable and consistent location helps users find what they need efficiently.
  • Hide and show content safely: Whenever you use CSS to hide text from visual users, be sure to do so in an accessible manner. Using display: none or visibility: hidden will likely hide the text from screen readers as well, meaning they won't be able to access that content. One accessible hiding solution is absolutely positioning an element off the page, out of view to visual users, by setting a large negative left value (don't set a top value, as this could inhibit accessibility). Another solution is to set a large negative text indent on the element, and a hidden overflow, to move the text out of view.
  • Try to avoid scrolling areas within a page: The overflow property is used to specify how content should appear when it overflows the boundaries of its container (visible, cropped, or scrollable). Some mobile browsers, like the iPhone, support scrolling overflow, but don't display scrollbars, and require two fingers to scroll these areas, making scrolling areas are difficult to use—others don't support scrolling at all.
  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

Peachpit Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from Peachpit and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about Peachpit products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites; develop new products and services; conduct educational research; and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email ask@peachpit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by Adobe Press. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.peachpit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020