Publishers of technology books, eBooks, and videos for creative people

# Numbers for iPad: Formulas and Functions

• Print
This chapter is from the book

## Understanding Functions

You can do a lot by using only constants, operators, and cell references, but Numbers’ real power comes from its functions: built-in, specialized, named operations that you can use in your formulas. Numbers gives you more than 250 functions, ranging from simple ones that sum or average numbers to complex ones that do financial and engineering calculations. See the appendix for a complete list of Numbers’ functions.

In addition to working with numbers, functions can do calendar arithmetic, make logical decisions, search and transform text, and look up values in lists. Table 4.6 lists some of the most commonly used functions.

#### Table 4.6 Commonly Used Functions

 Function Description AND/OR/NOT Creates a conditional formula that results in a Boolean value AVERAGE Calculates the arithmetic mean of a group of numbers CONVERT Converts a number from one measurement system to another system COUNT Counts the number of dates or numbers in a range DATEDIF Calculates the time difference between two dates FIND/SEARCH Finds one text string within another IF Creates a conditional formula that results in another calculation INT Rounds a number down to the nearest integer ISERROR Determines whether a value is an error MIN/MAX Returns the smallest/largest value of a group of numbers NETWORKDAYS Calculates the number of working days between two dates NOW Returns the current date and time NPV Calculate the net present value of an investment RAND Returns a uniform random number between 0 and 1 REPLACE/SUBSTITUTE Replaces one text string with another ROUND Rounds a number to the spe-cified number of decimal places SQRT Returns the square root of a number SUM Calculates the sum of a group of numbers TRIM Removes extra spaces from text UPPER/LOWER/PROPER Changes the case of text VALUE Converts text to a number VLOOKUP/HLOOKUP/LOOKUP Looks up values in a list

Each function has a name followed by zero or more comma-separated arguments enclosed in parentheses. You use arguments to provide the values that the function needs to do its work. The CONVERT function, for example, takes a number in one measurement system and converts it to another system. Its syntax—which gives a function’s name and the names and order of its arguments—is

CONVERT(convert-num, from-unit, to-unit)

Using CONVERT with sample arguments gives the formula

=CONVERT(100, "C", "F")

This formula displays 212 in a cell—100 degrees Celsius expressed in the Fahrenheit scale, and

=CONVERT(25, "km", "mi")

displays the number of miles in 25 kilometers (15.53427...) .

The number and types of arguments vary by function. You can type arguments directly into the formula or use cell references for some or all arguments. Arguments can be constants, operator expressions, cell references, or other functions. Text arguments must go inside quotation marks (but don’t put cell references inside quotation marks—they aren’t considered to be text even if their cells contain text). Here are a few examples of valid arguments:

=CONVERT(60+40, "C", "F")

=CONVERT(A2, B2, C2)

=CONVERT(A2+10, B2, UPPER("f"))

=CONVERT(SUM(D2:D10)+SUM(F2:F10)−273.15, B2, UPPER(LEFT("fahrenheit",1)))

Functions that take no arguments need no user-supplied data to do their work. The TODAY function, for example, returns today’s date:

=TODAY()

• 🔖 Save To Your Account

### Peachpit Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from Peachpit and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

## Overview

Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about Peachpit products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

## Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

### Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

### Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

### Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites; develop new products and services; conduct educational research; and for other purposes specified in the survey.

### Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email ask@peachpit.com.

### Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

### Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

## Other Collection and Use of Information

### Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

### Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

### Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

### Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

## Security

Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

## Children

This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

## Marketing

Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

• Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
• Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
• Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
• Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

## Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

## Choice/Opt-out

Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by Adobe Press. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.peachpit.com/u.aspx.

## Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

## Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

## Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

• As required by law.
• With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
• In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
• To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
• In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
• To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
• To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
• To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
• To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.