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This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book


  • There are two kinds of motivation that learning designers need to consider: motivation to learn, and motivation to do.
  • When you hear “I know, but...,” that’s a clue that you’ll probably need to design for motivation.
  • “I know, but...” frequently comes up when there is a delayed reward or consequence.
  • We learn from experience, but it can be a problem if we learn the wrong thing from experience.
  • Change is hard.
  • We are creatures of habit—irritating for the short-term learning curve, but potentially useful if we can help learners develop a new habit.
  • You may be able to influence your learners, but you can’t control them.
  • Learning designs should show the learners how something new is useful and easy to use.
  • Try to ensure your learners get the opportunity to observe and personally try new processes or procedures.
  • Learners need to feel a sense of self-efficacy with the new challenge or skill.
  • Use opinion leaders as examples.
  • Visceral experiences may have more impact that abstract ones, although the research on this topic is ongoing.


Bandura, Albert. 1977. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review 84: 191-215.

Dance, Gabriel, Tom Jackson, and Aron Pilhofer. 2009. Gauging Your Distraction. New York Times.

Davis, F. D. 1989. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly 13(3): 319–340.

Dweck, Carol S. 2007. The Perils and Promises of Praise. Educational Leadership 65 (2): 34–39.

Fogg, BJ. 2011, 2010. Behavior Model ( and Behavior Grid (

Mueller, Claudia M. and Carol S. Dweck. 1998. Intelligence praise can undermine motivation and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75: 33–52.

PSA Texting and Driving, U.K. 2009. Described at

Rogers, Everett M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. Glencoe: Free Press. Most recently revised 2003 (5th edition).

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