- There are two kinds of motivation that learning designers need to consider: motivation to learn, and motivation to do.
- When you hear “I know, but...,” that’s a clue that you’ll probably need to design for motivation.
- “I know, but...” frequently comes up when there is a delayed reward or consequence.
- We learn from experience, but it can be a problem if we learn the wrong thing from experience.
- Change is hard.
- We are creatures of habit—irritating for the short-term learning curve, but potentially useful if we can help learners develop a new habit.
- You may be able to influence your learners, but you can’t control them.
- Learning designs should show the learners how something new is useful and easy to use.
- Try to ensure your learners get the opportunity to observe and personally try new processes or procedures.
- Learners need to feel a sense of self-efficacy with the new challenge or skill.
- Use opinion leaders as examples.
- Visceral experiences may have more impact that abstract ones, although the research on this topic is ongoing.
Bandura, Albert. 1977. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review 84: 191-215.
Dance, Gabriel, Tom Jackson, and Aron Pilhofer. 2009. Gauging Your Distraction. New York Times. www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/07/19/technology/20090719-driving-game.html
Davis, F. D. 1989. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly 13(3): 319–340.
Dweck, Carol S. 2007. The Perils and Promises of Praise. Educational Leadership 65 (2): 34–39.
Mueller, Claudia M. and Carol S. Dweck. 1998. Intelligence praise can undermine motivation and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75: 33–52.
Rogers, Everett M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. Glencoe: Free Press. Most recently revised 2003 (5th edition).