Publishers of technology books, eBooks, and videos for creative people

Home > Articles > Digital Audio, Video > 3D

Posing Digital Characters

Animation is the art; computers are only the medium. Whether you animate with pencils, clay, or pixels, you need a strong foundation in animation, including anatomy, motion, weight, and timing. In this article, New Riders' author George Maestri teaches you about posing your characters, be they people or otherwise-inanimate objects.
George Maestri is the author of several animation books from New Riders Publishing, including [Digital] Character Animation 2, Volume I and [Digital] Character Animation 2, Volume II. He is also the series editor for New Riders' [Digital] series of books, including [Digital] Lighting and Rendering and [Digital] Texturing and Painting.
Like this article? We recommend

A pose is simply the way a character presents itself to the camera. If the character is sad, happy, frightened or brave, you should be able to read that emotion in its pose--the way the character stands, where its hands are placed, the position of its head. Every part of the body has a role in creating the pose. Theater, dance, mime, and countless other performing arts involve posing to a great extent. Similarly, animation is another art form that relies heavily on clear poses and silhouettes to convey a message.

When animated, your characters need to show emotion. Even the simplest shots require a character to hit a strong pose. Whether the character is sad, happy, proud, or surprised, the emotion shows in the body and the pose (see Figure 1).

Figure 1 A simple character can show a great deal of emotion simply through the pose of the body.

Animating with Poses

In the golden age of animation, animators discovered there are two basic methods for animating a scene: straight-ahead and pose-to-pose. Each method uses posing differently and has its own place and its own advantages.

Pose-to-Pose Animation

Pose-to-pose animation is the more controlled of the two. In this method, you plan your shot and get the main poses of the character within the shot blocked out. If your character is standing up from a chair, for example, the poses may be leaning back, grabbing the armrest for support, leaning forward, and, finally, standing up. A character winning the lottery may read the lottery ticket and then show disbelief, shock, and joy. The theory is that every action can be broken down into a series of distinct poses. From there, it's a matter of creating in-betweens or letting the computer in-between the poses for you--and, of course, tweaking these as necessary. It is a good way to animate difficult and tightly choreographed shots, as well as slower subtle pantomime moves, because those do not have many surprises or quick motions to them. Pose-to-pose animation is also good for dialogue, because each pose can be fit to the major points in the dialogue track. The downfall of the method is that it may lack spontaneity.

Straight-Ahead Animation

Straight-ahead animation is pretty much what the name implies. In this method, you start on frame one and animate "straight ahead" from there. This method is more improvisational in nature and can sometimes lead to very spontaneous and complex motion. It's also a great method for quicker action motions because of the spontaneity. Straight-ahead is the method closest to "acting" a frame at a time, and it is very similar to the techniques used in stop-motion animation. If you are trying to achieve a stop-motion look and feel to your animation, this is certainly the way to go. Still, this method can make it hard to achieve well-defined and solid poses, sometimes making animation that is hard to "read." It also makes animating complex shots difficult.

Combining the Two Methods

You can, however, combine the two methods and get the best of both. Computer animation gives you the bonus of being able to do this rather easily. Most fast machines can play back an animation test almost instantly. This makes it easy for the animator to block out a series of poses rather quickly, almost in a straight-ahead fashion, or animate a frame at a time in those sections that might need more spontaneity.

The question that still remains, however, is one of thought process. How do you approach animating your scene? Do you plan your shot carefully (pose-to-pose) or do you improvise (straight-ahead)? This is not an easy question to answer, and the best advice is to use your intuition and experience. Overplanning a shot may very well sap the life out of it. Being more improvisational can add unexpected touches and details you would have never dreamed of. On the other hand, complex shots need to be planned very carefully or all the elements simply won't sync up.

When you combine the two methods, you plan the extreme poses and then tighten that up with straight-ahead interpretation between those poses. The first part lays the groundwork, and the second part spices it up and gives it life, leaving behind all the computer interpolation that makes an animation look mechanical. With a computer, you can easily use both. I highly recommend you use both techniques to get a good animation; if you rely on just one or the other, you easily see where their weaknesses are.

Peachpit Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from Peachpit and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about Peachpit products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites; develop new products and services; conduct educational research; and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by Adobe Press. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive:

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020