- Coordinates for 3D CAD Modeling
- Geometric Entities
- 4.1 Manually Bisecting a Line or Circular Arc
- 4.2 Drawing Tangents to Two Circles
- 4.3 Drawing an Arc Tangent to a Line or Arc and Through a Point
- 4.4 Bisecting an Angle
- 4.5 Drawing a Line through a Point and Parallel to a Line
- 4.6 Drawing a Triangle with Sides Given
- 4.7 Drawing a Right Triangle with Hypotenuse and One Side Given
- 4.8 Laying Out an Angle
- 4.9 Drawing an Equilateral Triangle
- 4.10 Polygons
- 4.11 Drawing a Regular Pentagon
- 4.12 Drawing a Hexagon
- 4.13 Ellipses
- 4.14 Spline Curves
- 4.15 Geometric Relationships
- 4.16 Solid Primitives
- 4.17 Recognizing Symmetry
- 4.18 Extruded Forms
- 4.19 Revolved Forms
- 4.20 Irregular Surfaces
- 4.21 User Coordinate Systems
- 4.22 Transformations
- Key Words
- Chapter Summary
- Skills Summary
- Review Questions
- Chapter Exercises

## 4.14 Spline Curves

Splines are used to describe complex, or ** freeform**, curves. Many surfaces cannot be easily defined using simple curves such as circles, arcs, or ellipses. For example, the flowing curves used in automobile design blend many different curves into a smooth surface. Creating lifelike shapes and aerodynamic forms may require spline curves (Figure 4.40).

**4.40** Complex Curves. *The organic shape of this flowerlike bowl was created using SolidWorks splines. Splines can be controlled in a variety of ways. The enlarged view shows the curvature combs used to view the effect of the controlling curves that make up the spline. Dragging a control handle changes the direction of the curve at the control vertex. (Courtesy of Robert Kincaid.)*

The word ** spline** originally described a flexible piece of plastic or rubber used to draw irregular curves between points. Mathematical methods generate the points on the curve for CAD applications.

One way to create an irregular curve is to draw curves between each set of points. The points and the tangencies at each point are used in a polynomial equation that determines the shape of the curve. This type of curve is useful in the design of a ship’s hull or an aircraft wing. Because this kind of irregular curve passes through all the points used to define the curve, it is sometimes called an ** interpolated spline** or a

**. An example and its vertices are shown in Figure 4.41.**

*cubic spline***4.41** Interpolated Spline. *An interpolated spline curve passes through all the points used to define the curve.*

Other spline curves are approximated: they are defined by a set of vertices. The resulting curve does not pass through all the vertices. Instead, the vertices “pull” the curve in the direction of the vertex. Complex curves can be created with relatively few vertices using approximation methods. Figure 4.42 shows a 3D approximated spline curve and its vertices.

**4.42** Approximated Spline. *Except for the beginning and endpoints, the fit points for the spline curve stored in the database do not always lie on the curve. They are used to derive the curve mathematically.*

The mathematical definition for this type of spline curve uses the X- and Y- (and Z- for a 3D shape) coordinates and a parameter, generally referred to as *u*. A polynomial equation is used to generate functions in *u* for each point used to specify the curve. The resulting functions are then blended to generate a curve that is influenced by each point specified but not necessarily coincident with any of them.

Splines are drawn in CAD systems based on the mathematical relationships defining their geometry. Figure 4.46 shows an approximated spline drawn using AutoCAD. Figure 4.47 shows an interpolated spline drawn using SolidWorks. Both curves are drawn with a spline command, and both provide a dialog box that allows you to change properties defining the curve; however, the properties that are controlled vary by the type of spline being created by the software package. You should be familiar with the terms used by your modeling software for creating different types of spline curves.

**4.46** Approximated Spline. *This spline drawn in AutoCAD is pulled toward the defined control points. The Properties dialog box at the right allows you to change the weighting factor for each control point. (Autodesk screen shots reprinted courtesy of Autodesk, Inc.)*

**4.47** Interpolated Spline. *This SolidWorks spline passes through each control point. Software tools allow you to control spline properties. (Image courtesy of ©2016 Dassault Systèmes SolidWorks Corporation.)*