- Understanding Solid Objects
- Understanding Sketching Techniques
- 3.1 Technique of Lines
- 3.2 Sketching Straight Lines
- 3.3 Sketching Circles, Arcs, and Ellipses
- 3.4 Maintaining Proportions
- 3.5 One-View Drawings
- 3.6 Pictorial Sketching
- 3.7 Projection Methods
- 3.8 Axonometric Projection
- 3.9 Isometric Projection
- 3.10 Isometric Drawings
- 3.11 Making an Isometric Drawing
- 3.12 Offset Location Measurements
- 3.13 Hidden Lines and Centerlines
- 3.14 Angles in Isometric
- 3.15 Irregular Objects
- 3.16 Curves in Isometric
- 3.17 True Ellipses in Isometric
- 3.18 Orienting Ellipses in Isometric Drawings
- 3.19 Drawing Isometric Cylinders
- 3.20 Screw Threads in Isometric
- 3.21 Arcs in Isometric
- 3.22 spheres in Isometric
- 3.23 Oblique Sketches
- 3.24 Length of Receding Lines
- 3.25 Choice of Position in Oblique Drawings
- 3.26 Ellipses for Oblique Drawings
- 3.27 Angles in Oblique Projection
- 3.28 Sketching Assemblies
- 3.29 Sketching Perspectives
- 3.30 Curves and Circles in Perspective
- 3.31 Shading
- 3.32 Computer Graphics
- 3.33 Drawing on Drawing
- Key Words
- Chapter Summary
- Worksheets
- Review Questions
- Sketching Exercises

## 3.18 Orienting Ellipses in Isometric Drawings

Figure 3.49 shows four-center ellipses constructed on the three visible faces of a cube. Note that all the diagonals are horizontal or at 60° with horizontal. Realizing this makes it easier to draw the shapes.

**3.49** Four-Center Ellipses

Approximate ellipses such as these, constructed from four arcs, are accurate enough for most isometric drawings. The four-center method can be used only for ellipses in isometric planes. Earlier versions of CAD software, such as AutoCAD Release 10, used this method to create the approximate elliptical shapes available in the software. Current releases use an accurate ellipse.

*More Accurate Ellipses*

The four-center ellipse deviates considerably from a true ellipse. As shown in Figure 3.50a, a four-center ellipse is somewhat shorter and “fatter” than a true ellipse. When the four-center ellipse is not accurate enough, you can use a closer approximation called the Orth four-center ellipse to produce a more accurate drawing.

**3.50** Inaccuracy of the Four-Center Ellipse