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Using Index Markers

Whereas TOC entries are generated from the text of paragraphs in documents in the book, index entries are generated from text you add in the Marker window, similar to the way you added cross-reference marker text (see page 49). Before generating an index, you insert markers in the document.You can add different types of markers in the Marker window, such as a cross-reference marker (see page 49) or an index marker.

To insert an index marker:

  1. Click where you want to insert the marker.


    In the document, select the text that you want to appear in the Marker Text box (Figure 13.26).

    Figure 13.26Figure 13.26 Select text you want to appear in the Marker Text box.

    As long as the selected text does not itself contain a marker, it automatically appears in the Marker Text box.

  2. From the Special menu, choose Marker Figure 13.27).

    Figure 13.27Figure 13.27 Choose Special > Marker.


    (Mac OS only) Press Command-J.

  3. In the Marker window, from the Marker Type menu, choose Index (Figure 13.28).

    Figure 28Figure 13.28 Edit the text in the Marker Text box and click new Marker.

  4. In the Marker Text box, edit or add the text for the index entry.

    You can enter up to 255 characters.

  5. Click New Marker.

    A marker symbol appears in the document (Figure 13.29).

    Figure 13.29Figure 13.29 A marker symbol appears in the document when text symbols are on.

To index a word automatically:

  1. Click at the beginning of the word, and from the Special menu, choose Marker. You don't need to type anything in the Marker Text box.

  2. In the Marker window, click New Marker. When the index is generated, the text to the right of the marker, up to the first space, becomes the entry.

Creating special marker text

When you add index markers, you use a special syntax to structure the entry as it will appear in the index.

To include several entries in one marker:

  • In the Marker Text box, add the entries separated by semicolons (; ) (Figure 13.30). Each of the entries between semicolons will become its own index entry. In this example, there will be one entry for "duration of earthquake" and another entry for "earthquake duration" (Figure 13.31).

    Figure 13.30Figure 13.30 Separate multiple entries in one marker with semicolons ...

    Figure 13.31Figure 13.31 ... for separate index entries.

To use subentries in an index:

  • In the Marker Text box, add a subentry separated from the higher-level entry by a colon (:) (Figure 13.32).

    Figure 13.32Figure 13.32 Use colons to create subentries ...

    In this example, the first-level entry will be "reports" and under it, the second-level entry will be "Lawson's report (1908)" (Figure 13.33). If any other reports are indexed similarly, they will also appear as second-level entries under "reports."

    Figure 13.33Figure 13.33 ... such as this second-level entry under "reports."

You can use building blocks in marker text. Table 13.1 lists some of the building blocks for index marker text. You can use building blocks for the following:

  • For a page range, for example, 34–37

  • To suppress the display of a page number for entries that cross-reference another entry, for example, See also Hayward fault.

  • To use character formats stored in the Character Catalog, in the same way that you used character format building blocks for cross-references (see page 99) and variables.

    Table 13.1 Building Blocks for Index Entries

    Building block



    Beginning of a range


    End of a range


    Suppresses the page number in the entry


    Restores the page number for an entry that had been suppressed

     Character tag between angle brackets, for example, <Emphasis>

    Changes the character format of an entry

     <Default Paragraph Font>

    Restores the paragraph's default font

To specify a page range in index entries:

  1. Click in the document where you want the page range to begin.

  2. In the Marker Text box, type <$startrange>and the entry (Figure 13.34).

    Figure 13.34Figure 13.34 A marker for the beginning of a range of page numbers in an index entry.

  3. Click New Marker.

    A marker is inserted at the beginning of the range.

  4. Click in the document where you want the page range to end.

  5. In the Marker Text box, type <$endrange> and the entry (Figure 13.35).

    Figure 13.35Figure 13.35 A marker for the end of a range of page numbers in an index entry.

  6. Click New Marker.

    A marker is inserted at the end of the range. If the <$startrange> marker is on page 13 and the <$endrange> marker is on page 17, the index entry would appear as "damage from the 1908 earthquake, 13–17" (Figure 13.36).

    Figure 13.36Figure 13.36 A page range entry in an index.

To suppress page number display:

  • In the Marker Text box, type <$nopage>at the beginning of the text (Figure 13.37). In this example, the index entry would display the marker text, but not the page number, "San Andreas fault. See also Hayward fault" (Figure 13.38).

    Figure 13.37Figure 13.37 Cross-reference marker text with display of the page number suppressed.

    Figure 13.38Figure 13.38 When you suppress display of the page number, the entry displays the marker text.


  • If the same marker text occurs on consecutive pages, FrameMaker automatically creates page ranges in the index entry.

  • To be certain that identical text is used for the start and end markers, insert the start marker, copy the start marker symbol, and paste the symbol where you want to insert the end marker. Select the end marker symbol, and in the Marker Text box, change <$startrange> to <$endrange> and click Edit Marker (Figure 13.39).

    Figure 13.39Figure 13.39 Edit the building block in the marker text and click Edit Marker.

  • After you add index markers, be sure to spell check the document. You may have accidentally copied and pasted letters or spaces if you copied and pasted index markers—or deleted letters or spaces.

You can add character formatting to parts of an index entry, including the page number. Often words in a cross-reference, such as "See are in italic text. And you might want to text for a page number to indicate is where the most significant is located.

To use a character format in an index entry:

  • In the Marker Text box, type the character between angle brackets (< and >) at beginning of the text you want to format. When you want to end the character format, type <Default Para font> (Figure 13.40).

    Figure 13.40Figure 13.40 Use any character tag in the Character Catalog in angle brackets to format text in an index entry.

    In this example, the index entry would appear as "San Andreas fault. See also "Hayward fault" (Figure 13.41).

    Figure 13.41Figure 13.41 In this example, Emphasis character format produces an italic font.

To format only a page number in an index entry:

  • Type the character tag between angle brackets (< and >) at the end of the marker text.

    Bold character formatting is often used to indicate the most significant page number from among several. If the entry "earthquake:damage<Bold>" (Figure 13.42 ) were inserted on page 13 among entries on nonconsecutive pages the same chapter, the entry would as "earthquake damage, 7, 11, 13" (Figure 13.43).

    Figure 13.42Figure 13.42 Adding the character format at the end of the marker text formats the page number.

    Figure 13.43Figure 13.43 Bold format for the page number indicates the most significant page reference.


Character formatting affects only the entry it precedes. For example, "<Emphasis>San Andreas fault;Hayward fault" (Figure 13.44) generates two entries, but only the first entry would have the Emphasis character format.

Figure 13.44Figure 13.44 Character formatting affects only the entry it precedes.

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